Anti-arthritic actions of relaxin, in combination with estrogens, in joint and bone tissue

Carol A. Bagnell, Karen Santora, Teh-Yuan Ho


The incidence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis decline during pregnancy. However, the role of hormones of pregnancy, including estrogens and relaxin, in attenuating the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, including joint inflammation and bone destruction is unknown. In rat adjuvant-induced arthritis, a model for rheumatoid arthritis, relaxin in combination with estrogens, reduced joint inflammation and circulating levels of pro-inflammatory, tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, relaxin together with estrogens, altered systemic levels of bone remodeling markers receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B, its ligand and osteoprotegerin to improve bone health when compared with arthritic controls. In vitro studies using primary rat osteoblasts and an osteoblast cell line showed a similar bon-saving response to treatment with estrogens in combination with relaxin.


relaxin; estrogens; arthritis; joint; bone

Full Text:



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY- 4.0)

Firenze University Press
Via Cittadella, 7 - 50144 Firenze
Tel. (0039) 055 2757700 Fax (0039) 055 2757712