Anatomy of the glenohumeral ligaments
For many years, there has been controversy regarding the presence of the glenohumeral ligaments; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the detailed anatomy of these ligaments. 140 shoulders were dissected and examined. The detailed anatomy of glenohumeral ligaments was recorded. Data were doubled-entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21. Kruskal-Wallis and one way analysis for variance on ranks tests were used: statistical significance was set at p<0.05. The superior glenohumeral ligament was present in all specimens originating from the glenoid labrum anterosuperior aspect, inserting into the lesser tubercle (mean thickness 5.06 mm). The middle glenohumeral ligament was present in 98.57% of specimens arising from the glenoid labrum anterior aspect, inserting into the lesser tubercle (mean thickness 5.97 mm). The inferior glenohumeral ligament anterior band was present in all specimens arising from the glenoid labrum anteroinferior aspect, inserting into the humeral neck anteroinferior aspect (mean thickness 4.41 mm). The inferior glenohumeral ligament posterior band was observed in 79.28% of specimens arising from the posteroinferior aspect of the glenoid labrum, inserting into the humeral neck posteroinferior aspect: its mean thickness was 3.45 mm. this study concludes that the superior glenohumeral ligament was observed in all specimens. The middle glenohumeral ligament was seen in 98.57%. An anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament was present in all specimens, while a posterior band was present in 79.28%. A tuberculohumeral ligament was seen in 54.83% of specimens. The present observations should encourage evaluation of the function of this ligament.
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