Distribution of Fig Mosaic in Jordan

Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi, Ghandi H. Anfoka

Abstract


Fig mosaic (FM) is one of the most important diseases of figs in Jordan. A nationwide survey was conducted
to determine the incidence and severity of this disease in trees and in seedlings propagated by cuttings in
orchards and nurseries in 13 provinces and cities all over the country. Cultivars surveyed included Khdari, Mwazi,
Zraki, Khartamani, Dafoori, Turki, Hamari, Esaili, Ajlouni, in addition to an Italian and a French cultivar. Disease
severity varied from moderately severe to extremely severe with leaf malformation and fruit drop FM was found in
all provinces. Incidence of FM, averaged over trees of all cultivars and all age categories, was 95.3%. Fig trees 3 years
and older had the highest disease incidence, ranging from 93.3% to 100% in the different orchards. The Esaili cultivar
had the lowest incidence ranging between 50% and100%, with an average of 76.5%. The highest FM incidence was on
Dafoori. Of the most common cultivars, Khdari was the most susceptible. Jerash province had the highest percentage
(12.5%) of fig seedlings and trees in the most severe disease category. The highest percentage (27.8%) of healthy fig
seedlings and trees was in Irbid province. This paper reports the incidence of FM in various local and imported fig
cultivars of different ages, and relates the spread of the disease to the method of fig propagation practiced in Jordan.
Suggested solutions for the problem, which include the introduction of disease and pest free fig seedlings derived
from tissue culture and the establishment of new rules and regulations to prevent the spread of the disease are
discussed.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14601/Phytopathol_Mediterr-1567



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