Survey for legume and cereal viruses in Iraq

Muthana A. El-Muadhidi, Myasser Jerjess, Safaa G. Makkouk, Salou Murad


A survey was conducted in April 2000 to identify virus diseases affecting legume (chickpea, faba bean and
lentil) and cereal (wheat and barley) crops at different locations in Iraq (Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Diyala, At-Tamim and
Ninawa governorates). The survey covered 54 randomly selected legume fields (36 faba bean, 8 chickpea, and 10
lentil) and 23 cereal fields (18 wheat and 5 barley). All viruses were identified and their incidence determined by
laboratory testing 100–200 randomly collected samples and 20–25 symptomatic samples from each field. A total of
7663 legume and 3455 cereal samples was collected and tested for 12 legume and 5 cereal viruses by tissue blot
immunoassay (TBIA). In faba bean fields, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) was
the most common, followed by Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV, family Luteoviridae). In the 18 most extensively infected
faba bean fields (more than 50%), total virus incidence ranged from 80 to 100%, and BYMV was by far the most
common. Other viruses that were detected in legumes at low incidence were: Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV, genus
Alfamovirus, family Bromoviridae), Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, genus Nanovirus), Cucumber mosaic
virus (CMV, genus Cucumovirus, family Bromoviridae), Broad bean wilt virus (BBWV, genus Fabavirus, family
Comoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic
dwarf virus (CpCDV, genus Mastervirus, family Geminiviridae). This is the first report of FBNYV, BWYV and CpCDV
infecting legumes in Iraq. In the cereal fields, Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus, family
Luteoviridae) was detected in about 1% of random samples. Virus disease incidence in all cereal fields based on field
observations was less than 5%. Other viruses were rarely detected in cereals: BYDV-MAV (genus Luteovirus, family
Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae).

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