Antifungal Activities of Extracts from Selected Lebanese Wild Plants against Plant Pathogenic Fungi
pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
melonis, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaerotheca cucurbitae. Extracts of three of the plants, Origanum syriacum,
Micromeria nervosa and Plumbago maritima, showed the highest levels of in vitro activity against spore germination
and mycelial growth of the fungi tested. Inula viscosa showed high activity against spore germination but only
moderate activity against mycelial growth. The other five plant species tested Calamintha origanifolia, Micromeria
juliana, Ruta sp., Sideritis pullulans and Urginea maritima showed only moderate to low activity against these
fungi. Preventive sprays with extracts of O. syriacum, M. nervosa, P. maritima and I. viscosa, applied at concentrations
ranging between 4 and 8% to squash and cucumber seedlings, gave efficient protection against gray mold
caused by B. cinerea and powdery mildew caused by S. cucurbitae. However, these extracts did not control green mold
of citrus fruits caused by Penicillium sp. Thin layer chromatography revealed three inhibitory bands in extracts of O.
syriacum, two in I. viscosa and only one in each of the other plants tested: M. nervosa, P. maritima, C. origanifolia
and Ruta sp.
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