Identification of Fungi Associated with Grapevine Decline in Castilla y León (Spain)

M.T. Martin, R. Cobos


A number of phytopathogenic fungal species are associated with grapevine decline. Esca, eutypa dieback,
black dead arm, and other grapevine decline diseases affecting vine wood have a worldwide distribution. The external
symptoms of these diseases, however, can be erratic; even asymptomatic infections are known. Grapevine decline
causes economic losses, the size of which depends on factors that still remain unclear, but in all cases the productive
life of affected plants is shortened. Grapevine decline is present throughout Castilla y León (Spain). In the present
work, the fungi potentially associated with grapevine decline were isolated and identified. Botryosphaeria-like spp.,
Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. were common. Cylindrocarpon spp. were found mainly in
young plants, while Phomopsis viticola, Fomitiporia mediterranea, Eutypa lata and Stereum hirsutum were found
only occasionally. Particular attention was given to the identification of the Botryosphaeria-like species, of which
several were found. By comparing restriction endonuclease patterns (ITS1-NL4) and the sequences of the internal
transcribed spacer fragments (ITS4-ITS5), Diplodia seriata (=B. obtusa), Diplodia mutila (=B. stevensii), Neofusicoccum
parvum (=B. parva), B. dothidea, Dothiorella iberica (=B. iberica) and Dothiorella sarmentorum (=Diplodia
sarmentorum) were all identified. D. seriata and D. mutila were identified on plants older than five years. The
incidence of infection by “Botryosphaeria” species in young plants was very variable.

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