Citizenships and sub-citizenships, as a democratic outcome, in Latin America

Juan Russo


This research is based on theoretical alternatives of citizenship, which emphasize on the conquest of rights (T.H. Marshall) and on the configuration of collective identities (Stein Rokkan). Citizen construction corresponds to long-term historical processes associated with the constitution of the nation-state and the consolidation of community identities. Furthermore, its current evolution corresponds to political processes and public policies, which have a partway in the democratizations of the mid 80s. The factors of inequality in the 21st century are presented: poverty and indigence, ethnicity and gender, and the results of democratization processes in favor of equality.

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